Older blog entries for mjg59 (starting at number 353)

Further UEFI bootloader work

I've been continuing to work on Shim this week, and it's now getting pretty close to feature complete. The biggest change has been migrating the MokList variable from a custom format to the one used by the UEFI spec databases, which means it's easier for the kernel to import the MOK entries and use them for validating module signatures.

The other benefit of this format is that it supports hashes as well as certificates, and so I've added support for enrolling hashes through the MokManager UI. This means that distributions can now ship with a signed copy of Shim without having to sign any other components of their distribution. When the user attempts to boot off the media they'll be faced with a menu and a countdown. If the countdown reaches 0, the system will simply fall back to the next entry in the bootlist. If they hit a key, they can choose to enrol a hash. The user then navigates the filesystem explorer, chooses the bootloader, confirms that they want to enrol it and then exits. Shim then verifies the bootloader against the hash and boots successfully.

The big advantage of this over the Linux Foundation approach is that once a hash has been enrolled the need for physical end-user presence is removed - ie, if you enrol the hash, you don't need to hit a key every time you boot. This is still slightly sub-optimal in that if you update your bootloader you'll need to enrol a new hash, but that can be partially automated by calling MokUtil in the postinst - the user then simply needs to confirm that they want to enrol the hash, rather than having to choose it manually. Completely transparent updates are going to require a signed bootloader and an enrolled signing key.

A couple of people have asked whether we're planning on implementing the Linux Foundation approach of simply asking the user whether they want to boot an unsigned file. We've considered it, but at the moment are leaning towards "no" - it's simply too easy to use to trick naive users into running untrusted code. Users are trained to click through pretty much any security prompt that they see, and if an attacker replaces a legitimate bootloader with one that asks them to press "y" to make their computer work, they'll press "y". If that bootloader then launches a trojaned Windows bootloader that launches a trojaned Windows kernel, that's kind of a problem. This could be somewhat mitigated by limiting this feature to removable media, and we're seriously considering that, but there are still some risks associated. We might just end up writing the code but disabling it at build time, and then anyone who wants to distribute with that policy can do so at their own risk.

Meanwhile, Peter Jones is working on tidying up the code we're using for the actual signing and will be publishing that once the last couple of kinks are worked out. We're using hardware cryptography, so even if someone compromises the build systems they won't be able to obtain the private key that we use. However, should something disastrous and unanticipated happen, we do have a plan in place for migrating to new keys with minimal user impact. We'll document the code and infrastructure we're using in order to make it as easy as possible for other distributions to implement equivalent functionality.

As I've mentioned before, our goal is to make it as easy as possible for distributions to implement whatever level of Secure Boot policy they want without having to engage with Microsoft themselves. Shim allows distributions to ship an OS that has no signed binaries at all, or alternatively to ship an OS that uses filesystem-level cryptography to ensure that even userspace is completely signed. I'm expecting to see a range of options available, and I hope that the majority of users will find something to suit their needs.

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Syndicated 2012-10-12 03:39:47 from Matthew Garrett

Linux Foundation approach to Secure Boot

James Bottomley just published a description of the Linux Foundation's Secure Boot plan, which is pretty much as I outlined in the second point here - it's a bootloader that will boot untrusted images as long as a physically present end-user hits a key on every boot, and if a user switches their machine to setup mode it'll enrol the hash of the bootloader in order to avoid prompting again. In other words, it's less useful than shim. Just use shim instead.

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Syndicated 2012-10-10 21:58:31 from Matthew Garrett

Handling UEFI Secure Boot in smaller distributions

The plan for supporting UEFI Secure Boot in Fedora is still pretty much as originally planned, but it's dependent upon building a binary which has the Fedora key embedded, and then getting that binary signed by Microsoft. Easy enough for us to do, but not necessarily practical for smaller distributions. There's a few possible solutions for them.

  • Require that Secure Boot be disabled

    Not ideal. The UI for doing this is going to vary significantly between machines, making it difficult to document. It also means that the security benefits of Secure Boot are lost.

  • Require that the machine be placed in Setup Mode

    Clearing the enrolled Platform Key results in the system transitioning into Setup Mode, and from then on new keys can be enrolled into the key database until a new Platform Key is enrolled. Distributions could ship an unsigned bootloader that then writes the distribution keys into the database - James Bottomley has an example here. This means that the distribution can still benefit from Secure Boot, but otherwise has the same downside that the UI for doing this will vary between machines.

  • Ship with a signed bootloader that can add keys to its own database

    This is more interesting. Suse's bootloader design involves the bootloader having its own key database, distinct from those provided by the UEFI specification. The bootloader will execute any second stage bootloaders signed with a key in that database. Since the bootloader is in charge of its own key enrolment, the bootloader is free to impose its own policy - including enrolling new keys off a filesystem.

I've taken Suse's code for key management and merged it into my own shim tree with a few changes. The significant difference is a second stage bootloader signed with an untrusted key will cause a UI to appear, rather than simply refusing to boot. This will permit the user to then navigate the available filesystems, choose a key and indicate that they want to enrol it. From then on, the bootloader will trust binaries signed with that key.

Distributions are then able to take an existing signed copy of shim and put it on their install media, along with a file containing their key. If a user attempts to boot then the boot will fail because the second stage bootloader isn't signed with a trusted key, but the user can then use the navigator and select the distribution's key file. After providing confirmation and rebooting, the second stage bootloader's signature will now be recognised and the installer will boot.

This has the advantage over the first two options that the UI is consistent, making it easier to document the install process. The primary disadvantage is that the distribution won't be able to rebuild shim and will have to ship a pre-compiled binary. This may well be unacceptable to distributions like Debian, but should still provide a viable approach for other distributions who are either unwilling or unable to deal with Microsoft themselves.

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Syndicated 2012-10-07 20:37:55 from Matthew Garrett

The importance of trustworthy power structures

Direct harassment and overt sexism are certainly a significant part of why the gender ratios in the Linux community[1] are so skewed, but they're not the whole story. Part of feeling comfortable with a community is the knowledge that those in positions of power can be relied upon to engage in appropriate action when undesirable situations arise - no matter how compelling your code of conduct, no matter how detailed your diversity policy, if someone contravenes them and nothing happens, those documents are worthless and your community is unwelcoming. You can't rely on enforcement unless the community can trust its leadership.

Setting a good example in terms of behaviour is obviously vital, but it's not sufficient. Leaders who engage in sexist behaviour or who harass community members are clearly untrustworthy and undermine any attempts the rest of the community may be making. Failing to step in when they see examples of unacceptable behaviour is as bad. But less obvious is that it's possible to destroy that community trust without clearly contravening those community standards.

An example of this is Todd Akin, a candidate for the upcoming US Senate elections. In August he justified his support for making abortion illegal even in cases of rape, on the basis that women can't become pregnant through being victims of "legitimate rape". Of course, this had little to do with his fiscal or wider social policies, positions that are more directly relevant to most of his potential constituents, and in an election year that's primarily about the economy and healthcare it might be expected that a single issue would have little effect on the election standings. Instead, there was a huge uproar and a previously safe victory has now turned into a real chance of a loss.

Why? A significant part of it is because many people now have difficulty believing that they can trust him to represent them. If he understands women so little that he's willing to make entirely spurious justifications for his positions, how could any woman trust him to consider any other problems they may face? If he's willing to use fake science to back himself up, how could anyone trust him to consider any issue involving science? Through a single statement to a journalist he demonstrated to many that he was unsuited to be their representative in government. Many people who would otherwise have voted for him simply don't feel that they can rely on him to be there for them. Whether he wins his election or not, that distrust is going to remain and it's going to compromise his ability to work with his constituents.

It's the same in technical communities. If a member of a project's technical leadership frequently and loudly expresses their disdain for Python coders, anyone advocating for increased use of Python in that project is unlikely to feel that they can get unbiased opinions from that leader. If the project as a whole is uninterested in adopting Python then that's probably for the best, but if the rest of the project is open to using Python then there's a problem. People working with Python are less likely to join the project, and perhaps the project will lose out as a result.

But it's worth remembering that technical communities are still communities. If a member of a project's technical leadership vociferously argues that slavery benefited minority groups in the long run, members of those minority groups are going to feel that they're not going to be well represented by that leader. If they blog about how homosexuality is a lifestyle choice then homosexuals are unlikely to flock to the project. Likewise, if they downplay the prevalence or impact of rape, women are going to feel marginalised and find something better to do with their time.

It's impossible to separate these things. No matter how technically competent a community leader is, no matter how much code review they perform or how much mentorship they provide, if they're expressing unacceptable social opinions then they're diminishing the community. People I know and respect have left technical communities simply because people in positions of responsibility have engaged in this kind of behaviour without it causing them any problems.

We shouldn't be willing to give people a pass simply because they aren't actually groping anyone or because they're not members of the KKK. Those who drive people away from the community on the basis of race, gender or sexual orientation deserve vocal condemnation, and if they're unwilling to change their behaviour then the community should instead act to drive them away.

We're pretty bad at that in the Linux world at the moment. Too many people have behaved in this way and are left with positions of power or responsibility. There's no easy solution to the problem, but the Ada Initiative is continuing to work to improve awareness and work with communities to reduce the alienation that results from this kind of behaviour. If you want this to be anything other than a straight white male dominated community, you should give them money.

[1] (and computing in general, though to a lesser extent)

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Syndicated 2012-10-06 23:02:27 from Matthew Garrett

UEFI Bootkits

The Register covered a story on a UEFI-based attack on Windows 8. It's actually covering this technical writeup, which is a discussion of a proof of concept implementation of an attack on the Windows 8 kernel from the firmware environment. The first approach they describe is pretty straightforward, in that they simply patch the Windows bootloader directly. Since this is what's reading the kernel off disk and launching it, patching that code means you can modify the kernel in-place and run it with built-in privilege elevation exploits.

The second approach is a little more interesting, and is based on their observation that the UEFI ExitBootServices() function is called after the kernel is loaded but before it's executed. UEFI calls are simply function pointers, so if you can run code in the firmware environment it's trivial to simply replace the function pointer with one to code of your own which does whatever you want before calling the original code. This makes it pretty straightforward to add a hook that gets run when ExitBootServices() is called, finds the kernel, patches it and then continues on its way. Since the kernel is patched after it's been read, this gets around any kind of signature checking that the bootloader might carry out.

But both these cases have something in common: they rely on the ability to run arbitrary code in the firmware environment, and that's precisely the thing that UEFI Secure Boot prevents. A system with a correct implementation of Secure Boot isn't vulnerable to the described attacks, but it's fairly unsurprising that running UEFI without Secure Boot is vulnerable. UEFI on its own doesn't provide any additional security. You're as vulnerable to bootkits as you are with BIOS.

So this isn't really a story about a surprising vulnerability. It's a story about someone taking the logical step of implementing a bootkit on top of UEFI, which is what everyone should have been expecting all along. Computers that are configured to run arbitrary code will run arbitrary code, and if that arbitrary code happens to modify your kernel so your credit card details are automatically posted to pastebin, well, that's a plausible outcome.

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Syndicated 2012-09-20 17:33:47 from Matthew Garrett

UEFI Secure boot in Fedora: status update

There's been good progress in Fedora's implementation of UEFI Secure Boot, so time for a quick update.

Boot process signing

The infrastructure for signing the bootloader binaries is now implemented. pesign is in the archive and being used to sign shim, grub2 and the kernel. At the moment they're all being signed by test keys, and the private key is actually in the pesign package. This is, obviously, not intended for production use - it's just to ensure that we can build correctly signed images. We've proof-of-concepted signing via cryptographic hardware and will shortly be deploying new build systems dedicated to building the signed binaries. These won't be general access systems and will have a lightly modified mock configuration to ensure that the crypto hardware is available to the build chroots, but otherwise there's nothing special about them.

As far as signing with the Microsoft keys goes, we're in the final round of legal review of the appropriate agreements and will be migrating to a version of shim signed with their key in the near future.

Kernel modifications

There's two main sets of patches for the kernel. The first is to automatically enable the locking down of various bits of functionality when secure boot is enabled, in order to prevent users (including root) from being able to modify the kernel at runtime. They've just been posted upstream and haven't been dreadfully received, though we'll probably be changing the name of the capability. The main thing that users will notice is that any X drivers that still need direct hardware access (which, on secure boot systems, should be zero - we've implemented native kernel drivers for all the hardware we expect to see there) will fail to work, as will setpci. The plan is for kexec to require that kernel images be signed, but that's requiring rather more reworking of kexec than expected so for now kexec will just be disabled.

The other lump of kernel functionality is the support for module signatures. That had been somewhat blocked based on a lack of consensus between patch authors and upstream, but an agreement got hammered out at Kernel Summit last week and so we should see progress there shortly. Right now we're still looking at modules being signed with a throwaway key, but the plan is still for keys in db (and MOK, if using the Suse approach) to be imported into the kernel keyring and used. That's dependent upon that code being written in time, though. It's definitely still a goal for F18.

Key management

We're planning on using Suse's approach of permitting local key management at the shim level, and I spent some time discussing this with Vojtech last week. In combination with the above, this should provide a workable mechanism for permitting the end-user to install module signing keys.

General UEFI support improvements

We've added support to grub to use the kernel's built-in UEFI setup functionality, although there's still some discussion with upstream to ensure that it's implemented in an acceptable way. This approach also makes it easy for us to obtain PCI ROMs via UEFI, which improves radeon support on a bunch of Macs. Finally, we've been hammering on some remaining UEFI bugs and are definitely at the point where the machines that don't work are surprising and the ones that do are the tedious expectation. This is far better than any previous release.

Documentation

Still has to be written, and that's probably where much of the my next month is going.

Summary

Fedora 18 is still on track to have full UEFI Secure Boot support out of the box, and the Beta should be fully signed although perhaps still with our test keys.

For those of you who get sent to surprisingly expensive conferences, I'll be discussing some of this as part of a presentation on improving Linux support for UEFI at the Intel Developer Forum in San Francisco next Tuesday morning. Feel free to say hi if you're in the area.

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Syndicated 2012-09-05 06:18:04 from Matthew Garrett

Secure Boot is almost certainly not causing you problems yet

There's been a few links to this story of someone buying a system that turned out to have UEFI firmware and also turned out not to boot. Given all the press, it's unsurprising that people would assume that problems they have with UEFI booting are related to Secure Boot, but it's very unlikely that this is the actual problem here. First, nobody's shipping an appropriately signed operating system yet. A hardware vendor that enabled secure boot out of the box would be selling a machine that wouldn't boot any OS you could buy. That's a poor way to make money. Second, the system booted a Fedora 17 CD. Fedora 17 isn't signed, so if the firmware booted it then the firmware isn't enforcing Secure Boot. Third, it didn't boot the installed OS. That's really at the point of it sounding like a hardware problem - selling systems that don't run the OS you sold them with is a guaranteed way of getting enough support calls that you wouldn't make any money on them, ever.

To be fair, Linux compatibility with UEFI systems is still not as good as it is with BIOS systems. Fedora 18 will be using a new UEFI boot process and so far in our testing it's been significantly more reliable than Fedora 17. There's still some remaining issues that we're aware of and working on, but right now it's hugely more likely that failures to boot Fedora 17 on UEFI systems are down to our bugs rather than Secure Boot.

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Syndicated 2012-08-16 17:46:53 from Matthew Garrett

Building personal trust with UEFI Secure Boot

The biggest objection that most people have to UEFI Secure Boot as embodied in the Windows 8 certification requirements is the position of Microsoft as the root of trust. But we can go further than that - putting any third party in a position of trust means that there's the risk that your machine will end up trusting code that you don't want it to trust. Can we avoid that?

It turns out that the answer is yes, although perhaps a little more complicated than ideal. The Windows 8 certification requirements insist that (on x86, at least) the key databases be completely modifiable. That means you can delete all the keys provided by your manufacturer, including Microsoft's. However, as far as the spec is concerned, a system without keys is in what's called "Setup Mode", and in this state it'll boot anything - even if it doesn't have a signature.

So, we need to populate the key database. This isn't terribly difficult. James Bottomley has a suite of tools here, including support for generating keys and building an EFI binary that will enrol them into the key databases. So, now you have a bunch of keys and the public half of them is in your platform firmware. What next?

If you've got a system with plug-in graphics hardware, what happens next is that your system no longer has any graphics. The firmware-level drivers for any plug-in hardware also need to be signed, and won't run otherwise. That means no graphics in the firmware. If you're netbooting off a plug-in network card, or booting off a plug-in storage controller, you're going to have similar problems. This is the most awkward part of the entire process. The drivers are all signed with a Microsoft key, so you can't just enrol that without trusting everything else Microsoft have signed. There is a way around this, though. The typical way to use Secure Boot is to provide a list of trusted keys, but you can also provide trusted hashes. Doing this involves reading the device ROM, generating a SHA256 hash of it and then putting that hash in the key database.

This is, obviously, not very practical to do by hand. We intend to provide support for this in Fedora by providing a tool that gets run while the system is in setup mode, reads the ROMs, hashes them and enrols the hashes. We'll probably integrate that into the general key installation tool to make it a one-step procedure. The only remaining problem is that swapping your hardware or updating the firmware will take it back to a broken state, and sadly there's no good answer for that at the moment.

Once you've got a full set of enrolled keys and the hashes of any option ROMs, the only thing to do is to sign your bootloader and kernel. Peter Jones has written a tool to do that, and it's available here. It uses nss and so has support for using any signing hardware that nss supports, which means you can put your private key on a smartcard and sign things using that.

At that point, assuming your machine implements the spec properly everything that it boots will be code that you've explicitly trusted. But how do you know that your firmware is following the spec and hasn't been backdoored? That's tricky. There's a complete open implementation of UEFI here, but it doesn't include the platform setup code that you'd need to run it on any x86 hardware. In theory it'd be possible to run it on top of Coreboot, but right now that's not implemented. There is a complete port to the Beagleboard hardware, and there's instructions for using it here. The remaining issue is that you need a mechanism for securing access to the system flash, since if you can make arbitrary writes to it an attacker can just modify the key store. On x86 this is managed by the flash controller being switched into a mode where all writes have to be carried out from System Management Mode, and the code that runs there verifies that writes are correctly authenticated. I've no idea how you'd implement that on ARM.

There's still some work to be done in order to permit users to verify the entire stack, but Secure Boot does make it possible for the user to have much greater control over what their system runs. The freedom to make decisions about not only what your computer will run but also what it won't is an important one, and we're doing what we can to make sure that users have that freedom.

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Syndicated 2012-08-16 17:08:22 from Matthew Garrett

Playing with Thunderbolt under Linux on Apple hardware

I've temporarily got hold of a Retina Macbook Pro. Fedora 17 boots fine on it with the following kernel arguments: nointremap drm_kms_helper.poll=0 video=eDP-1:2880x1800@45e, although you'll want an updated install image. The nointremap requirement is fixed by this patch, and the others are being tracked here. The gmux chip that controls the multiple graphics chipsets has changed - patches here. That just leaves Thunderbolt.

Thunderbolt is, to a first approximation, PCIe tunnelled over a Displayport connector. It's a high-bandwidth protocol for connecting external devices. Things are complicated by it also supporting Displayport over the same connection, which I'm sure will be hilarious when we get yet another incompatible display protocol. But anyway. I picked up a Thunderbolt ethernet adapter and started poking.

Booting with the device connected looked promising - an ethernet device appeared. Pulling it out resulted in the pcie hotplug driver noticing that it was missing and cleaning up, although the b44 ethernet driver sat around looking puzzled for a while. So far so good. Unfortunately plugging it in again didn't work, and rebooting without any Thunderbolt devices connected not only did nothing on hotplug, it also meant that the Thunderbolt controller didn't show up in lspci at all.

It turns out that there's several problems at play here. The first is the missing Thunderbolt controller. The problem here is the following code in Apple's ACPI tables:

        Method (RMCR, 0, Serialized)
        {
            If (LNot (OSDW))
            {
                If (LAnd (LEqual (\_SB.PCI0.PEG1.UPSB.DSB1.UPS0.AVND, 0xFFFF), 
                    LEqual (\_SB.PCI0.PEG1.UPSB.DSB2.UPS0.AVND, 0xFFFF)))
                {
                    Store ("RMCR: Disable Link and Power Off Cactus Ridge Chip",
                           Debug)
                    Store (0x01, \_SB.PCI0.PEG1.LDIS)
                    Sleep (0x07D0)
                    Store (0x00, GP23)
                }
            }
        }
This checks if the system claims to be Darwin (the core of OS X). If not, it checks whether two PCIe bridges have been configured. If both are still in an unconfigured state, it cuts the PCIe link to the upstream PCIe link and then sets GP23 to 0. Looking further, GP23 turns out to be a GPIO line. Setting it to 0 appears to cut power to the Thunderbolt controller. In summary, unless your OS claims to be OS X, booting without an attached Thunderbolt device will result in the chipset being powered down so hard that it's entirely invisible to the OS.

Fixing that is as easy as adding Darwin to the list of operating systems Linux claims to be. So, now I could boot without a connected device and still see the controller. Since ACPI seemed to be important here, I started looking at the other ACPI methods associated with the device. The first one that drew attention was Name(_GPE, 0x14). The _GPE method (not to be confused with the _GPE object at the top of the global ACPI namespace) is defined as providing the ACPI general purpose event associated with the device. Unfortunately, it's only defined as doing this for embedded controllers - Apple's use of it on a PCI device is massively non-standard. But, still, easy enough to handle. Intel chipsets map GPE 0x10 to 0x1f to GPIO lines 0-15, so this GPE is associated with GPIO 4. Looking through the ACPI code showed a bunch of other references to GP04, and it turns out that if the chip is powered down (via setting GP23 to 0) then plugging a device in to the port will generate a GPE. This makes sense - a powered down controller isn't going to notice hotplug events itself, so you need some kind of out of band notification mechanism. There's also another ACPI method that flips the polarity of the GPIO line so it doesn't keep generating events for the entire time a device is connected. It didn't take long to come up with a stub driver that would power down the controller if nothing was connected at boot, and then wake it up again on a hotplug event.

Unfortunately that's as far as I've got. I'd been hoping that everything beyond this was just PCIe hotplug, but it seems not. Apple's Thunderbolt driver is rather too large to just be handling ACPI events, and this document on Apple's website makes it pretty clear that there's OS involvement in events and device configuration. Booting with a device connected means that the firmware does the setup, but if you want to support hotplug then the OS needs to know how to do that - and Linux doesn't.

Getting this far involved rather a lot of irritation at Apple for conspiring to do things in a range of non-standard ways, but it turns out that the real villains of the piece are Intel. The Thunderbolt controller in the Apples is an Intel part - the 82524EF, according to Apple. Given Intel's enthusiasm for Linux and their generally high levels of engagement with the Linux development community, it's disappointing[1] to discover that this controller has been shipping for over a year with (a) no Linux driver and (b) no documentation that would let anyone write such a driver. It's not even mentioned on Intel's website. So, thanks Intel. You're awful.

Anyway. This was my attempt to spend a few days doing something more relaxing than secure boot, and all I ended up with was eczema and liver pain. Lesson learned, hardware vendors hate you even more than firmware vendors do.

[1] By which I mean grotesquely infuriating

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Syndicated 2012-08-14 04:07:50 from Matthew Garrett

Thoughts on the SUSE Secure Boot implementation

There's a post here describing SUSE's approach to implementing Secure Boot support. In summary, it's pretty similar to the approach we're taking in Fedora - a first stage shim loader is signed with a key in db, it loads a second stage bootloader (grub 2) that's signed with a key that's in shim, the second stage bootloader loads a signed kernel. The main difference between the approaches is the use of a separate key database in shim, whereas we are currently planning on using a built-in key and the contents of the firmware key database.

The main concern about using a separate key database is that applications are able to modify variable content at runtime. The Secure Boot databases are protected by requiring that any updates be signed, but this is less practical for scenarios where you want the user to be able to modify the database themselves while still protecting them from untrusted applications installing their own keys. SUSE have solved this problem by not setting the runtime access flag on the variable, meaning that it's inaccessible once ExitBootServices() has been called early in the init sequence. Since we only start running any untrusted code after ExitBootServices(), the variable can only be accessed by trusted code.

It's a wonderfully elegant solution. We've been planning on supporting user keys by trusting the contents of db, and the Windows 8 requirements specify that it must be possible for a physically present user to add keys to it. The problem there has been that different vendors offer different UI for this, in some cases even requiring that the keys be in different formats. Using an entirely separate database and offering support for enrolment in the early boot phase means that the UI and formats can be kept consistent, which makes it much easier for users to manage their own keys.

I suspect that we'll adopt this approach in Fedora as well - it doesn't allow anything that our solution wouldn't have, but it does make some of them easier. Full marks to SUSE on this.

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Syndicated 2012-08-10 05:02:25 from Matthew Garrett

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