Older blog entries for danstowell (starting at number 43)

OpenStreetMap: where should the next recruitment drive be?

I watched the fancy OpenStreetMap Year of Edits 2012 video, which shows a data-driven animation of all the map edits happening around the world from thousands of contributors. It certainly makes the project look busy!

BUT it's not the kind of data-viz that particularly wants you to understand the data. If you watch the video, can you tell which was the busiest part of the world? Which bit was least busy -- where should OSM's next recruitment drive be?

So here's what I wondered: can we visualise the density of map edits for a place, relative to the population of the place? You see, if we assume that the population density of one part of the world should be roughly proportional to the number of things-that-should-be-mapped in that part of the world, then a low value of this ratio (edit rate divided by population density) indicates a place that needs more mapping.

So how to do it? I downloaded the OSM changesets from http://planet.osm.org/ and piled up all the bounding boxes from the 2012 changesets, converting that into a grid giving the edit density. Then I was lucky enough to find this gridded world population density data download from Columbia University.

Then I wrote a Python script to divide one by the other and plot the result. Here it is:

Blue areas have a relatively high number of edits per head of population, red have relatively low. White is average.

(BTW, here's the plot of the edit density, before taking the ratio.)

This is only a rough sketch, since it relies on some assumptions (e.g. every "changeset" was an equally important edit; also the map-features-per-population assumption I already mentioned). But the general story is: we need more mappers in South-East Asia (especially China) and Africa, please!

The plot clearly shows a general pattern connected with relative wealth / access to tech, so maybe initiatives like operation cowboy are the way to do it - get places mapped on behalf of others.

Syndicated 2013-01-08 17:17:55 (Updated 2013-01-08 17:31:04) from Dan Stowell

Comment on 'High heels as supernormal stimuli: How wearing high heels affects judgements of female attractiveness'

There's a research paper just out which has gained itself some press: "High heels as supernormal stimuli: How wearing high heels affects judgements of female attractiveness". It's described in the popular press as "proving" that high heels make women attractive, and that's fair enough but it's obviously not very surprising news given that high heels are widely known in current Western society to have that association. The research paper is slightly more specific than that: it finds that whatever "information" is transmitted to the viewer by high heels is even transmitted when we can see nothing but a handful of moving dots, hiding everything about the viewee except their gait.

That's interesting. But unfortunately, the authors go on to make one further step, which strikes me as a step too far - namely they infer that this reflects some evolutionary explanation for the popularity of high heels. The word "supernormal" in the title refers to the idea that high heels might cause women to walk in a way which exaggerates female aspects of gait, i.e. makes them walk even more unlike males than otherwise. There is indeed evidence for this in their paper. But the authors explicitly test for whether the "female" aspects of gait correlate with attractiveness judgments, and they find insignificant or barely significant correlations.

(Technical note: two of the correlations attain p<0.05, but they didn't control for multiple comparisons, so the true significance is probably lower. And the correlations I'm talking about now are in their Table 2, which is looking at differences within the high-heel category and within the flat-shoe category. The main effect demonstrated by the authors is indeed significant: viewers rated the high-heel videos as more attractive.)

So what does this suggest? To me it seems they've demonstrated that
(a) high heels affect gait (as you can tell on most Friday nights in town), and
(b) people recognise the change in gait as being associated with attractiveness and femininity.
But this second finding can just as easily be explained by cultural learning as by something evolutionary, despite the fact that the paper was published in "Evolution and Human Behavior".

In fact, (b) could conceivably be caused by a conjunction of:
(b1) people recognise the change as being caused by high heels (whether consciously or not); and
(b2) people recognise that high heels are associated with attrractiveness and femininity.
(This b1-and-b2 scenario is also a potential explanation for their second set of findings, in which the gaits of high-heeled walkers are less often mistaken for men.)

All of which means that I don't think these experiments manage to discern any difference between effects caused by evolved factors and effects caused by cultural learning. Given that, the obvious way to test that difference would be to show the dot videos to viewers who grew up in a non-Western society which doesn't have a tradition of high heels. (Not a convenient test to do - but I'd definitely be interested in the results!)

Here's one quote from their results, about a minor aspect, whether male or female onlookers have different opinions:

"note that there was no shoetype-gender interaction, showing that both males and females judged high heels to be more attractive than flat shoes. [...] furthermore, there were high correlations between male and female attractiveness ratings of the walkers in both the flat and heels condition demonstrating that males and females agreed which were the attractive and unattractive walkers."

So, in this study, the male and female onlookers showed the same pattern of response to the presence of high heels. Does this perhaps hint that the difference might be learned, rather than from some presumed phwoar-factor inbuilt in men?

This study is an example of what I see as a frustrating tendency for people in biological disciplines to do interesting quantitative studies, but then to plunge into the discussion section and make unwarranted generalisations about the evolutionary reasons for something's existence. As well as invoking evolution, in this case they also discuss women's motivation for how they dress:

"Therefore we suggest that one, conscious or unconscious, motivation for women to wear high heels is to increase their attractiveness."

Firstly, this study explicitly does not explore women's motivations, in any sense. It only studies judgments made by outside observers. Secondly, as the authors have already acknowledged,

"High heels have become a part of the uniform of female attire in a number of different contexts and as such are part of a much more complex set of display rules."

I don't dispute that attractiveness might be a more important motivation for some than other motivations (fashion, identity, confidence, social norms, availability, symbolism), but let's not imply that this hunch is an empirical finding, please. The association of high heels with attractiveness is already a common trope, so the idea that women might be motivated to buy into that trope is perfectly plausible, but this study throws no light on it.

Still, as I said, the main finding is interesting: the differences in gait induced by high heels, and the rating of such gaits as attractive, are demonstrated to be easily perceivable even in a display reduced to a handful of green dots.

Syndicated 2013-01-05 11:45:32 (Updated 2013-01-05 11:55:23) from Dan Stowell

Amazon Kindle Fire HD limitations

Over Christmas I helped someone set up their brand new Kindle Fire HD. I hadn't realised quite how coercive Amazon have been: they're using Android as the basis for the system (for which there is a whole world of handy free stuff), but they've thrown various obstacles in your way if you want to do anything that doesn't involve buying stuff from Amazon.

Now, many of these obstacles can be circumvented if you are willing to do moderately techy things such as side-loading apps, but for the non-techy user those options simply won't appear to exist, and I'm sure Amazon uses this to railroad many users into just buying more stuff. It's rude to be so obstructive to their customers who have paid good money for the device.

The main symptoms of this this attitude which I encountered:

  • You need to set up an Amazon one-click credit-card connection even before you can download FREE apps. It's not enough to have an Amazon account connected; you also need the one-click credit card thing.

  • One of the most vital resources for ebooks readers is Project Gutenberg, the free library of out-of-copyright books - but Amazon don't want you to go there. There's no easy way to read Project Gutenberg stuff on Kindle Fire. (Instructions here.) They will happily sell you their version of a book that you could easily get for zero money, of course.

  • You can't get Google Maps. This is just one result of the more general lockdown where Amazon doesn't want you to access the big wide Google Play world of apps, but it's a glaring absence since the Fire has no maps app installed. We installed Skobbler's ForeverMap 2 app which is a nice alternative, which can calculate routes for walking and for driving. In my opinion, the app has too many text boxes ("Shall I type the postcode in here?" "No that's the box to type a city name") and so the search could do with being streamlined. Other than that it seems pretty good.

So, unlike most tablet devices out there, if you have a Kindle Fire it's not straightforward to get free apps, free ebooks, or Google tools. This is disappointing, since the original black-and-white Kindle was such a nicely thought-through object, an innovative product, but now the Kindle Fire is just an Android tablet with things taken away. That seems to be why the Project Gutenberg webmaster recommends "don't get a Kindle Fire, get a Nexus 7".

There are good things about the device, though. It has a nice bright screen, good for viewing photos (though the photo viewer app has a couple of odd limitations: it doesn't rotate to landscape when you rotate the device - seems a very odd and kinda obvious omission since almost everything else rotates; and it doesn't make it obvious whether you've reached the end of a set, so you end up swiping a few times before you're sure you've finished). There's a good responsive pinch zoom on photos, maps etc. And the home screen has a lovely and useful skeumorph: the main feature is a "pile" of recently-used things, a scrollable pile of books and apps. A great way to visually skim what you recently did and how to jump back to it - biased towards books and Amazon things, but still, a nice touch. Shame about the overall coercive attitude.

Syndicated 2012-12-30 10:20:12 from Dan Stowell

Pub statistics for UK and Eire

I just extracted all the pubs in UK & Eire from OpenStreetMap. (Tech tip: XAPI URL builder makes it easy.)

There are 32,822 pubs listed. (As someone pointed out, that's 38.4% of all the pubs in OSM. So the UK is doing well - but come on, rest of the world, get mapping yr pubs ;)

A handful of quick statistics from the data I extracted:

  • The real_ale tag indicates 1080 real ale pubs (the tag is blank for 31678 of them, "no" for 64 of them). That's 3%, probably much less than the true number.
  • The toilets tag indicates 1211 have toilets available - again about 3%, whereas I bet most of them do really!
  • The food tag shows food available at 1119 of them (31686 blank, 17 "no"). Again about 3%, gotta be more than this.
  • The wifi tag shows wifi available at 274 of them (32450 blank, 98 "no"). I've no idea how common wifi is in pubs these days.

Syndicated 2012-12-20 07:26:06 (Updated 2012-12-20 07:36:04) from Dan Stowell

How to remove big old files from git history

I've been storing a lot of my files in a private git repository, for a long time now. Back when I started my PhD, I threw all kinds of things into it, including PDFs of handy slides, TIFF images I generated from data, journal-article PDFs... ugh. Mainly a lot of big bloaty files that I didn't really need to be long-term-archived (because I already had archived the nice small files that generated them - scripts, data tables, tex files).

So now I'm many years on, and I know FOR SURE that I don't need any trace of those darn PDFs in my archive, I want to delete them from the git history. Not just delete them from the current version, that's easy ("git rm"), but delete them from history so that my git repository could be nice and compact and easy to take around with me.

NOTE: Deleting things from the history is a very tricky operation! ALL of your commit IDs get changed, and if you're sharing the repos with anyone you're quite likely to muck them up. Don't do it casually!

But how can you search your git history for big files, inspect them, and then choose whether to dump them or not? There's a stackoverflow question about this exact issue, and I used a script from one of the answers, but to be honest it didn't get me very far. It was able to give me the names of many big files, but when I constructed a simple "git-filter-branch" command based on those filenames, it chugged through, rewriting history, and then failed to give me any helpful size difference. It's quite possible that it failed because of things like files moving location over time, and therefore not getting 100% deleted from the history.

Luckily, Roberto is a better git magician than I am, and he happened to be thinking about a similar issue. Through his git-and-shell skills I got my respository down to 60% of its previous size, and cleared out all those annoying PDFs. Roberto's tips came in some github gists and tweets - so I'm going to copy-and-link them here for posterity...

  1. Make a backup of your repository somewhere.

  2. Create a ramdisk on which to do the rewriting - this makes it go MUCH faster, it can be a slow process. (For me it reduced two days to two hours.)

    mkdir repo-in-ram
    sudo mount -t tmpfs -o size=2048M tmpfs repo-in-ram
    cp -r myrepo.git repo-in-ram/
    cd repo-in-ram/myrepo.git/
    
  3. This command gets a list of all blobs ever contained in your repo, along with their associated filename (quite slow), so that we can check the filenames later:

    git verify-pack -v .git/objects/pack/*.idx | grep tree | cut -c1-40 | xargs -n1 -iX sh -c "git ls-tree X | cut -c8- | grep ^blob | cut -c6-" | sort | uniq > blobfilenames.txt
    
  4. This command gets the top 500 biggest blobs in your repo, ordered by size they occupy when compressed in the packfile:

    git verify-pack -v .git/objects/pack/*.idx | grep blob | cut -c1-40,48- | cut -d' ' -f1,3 | sort -n -r --key 2 | head -500 > top-500-biggest-blobs.txt
    
  5. Go through that "top-500-biggest-blobs.txt" file and inspect the filenames. Are there any you want to keep? If so DELETE the line - this file is going to be used as a list of things that will get deleted. What I actually did was I used Libreoffice Calc to cross-tabulate the filenames against the blob IDs.

  6. Create this file somewhere, with a name "replace-with-sha.sh", and make it executable:

    #!/usr/bin/env sh
    TREEDATA=$(git ls-tree -r $2 | grep ^.......blob | cut -c13-)
    while IFS= read -r line ; do
        echo "$TREEDATA" | grep ^$line | cut -c42- | xargs -n1 -iX sh -c "echo $line > 'X.REMOVED.sha' && rm 'X'" &
    done < $1
    wait
    
  7. Now we're ready for the big filter. This will invoke git-filter-branch, using the above script to trim down every single commit in your repos:

    git filter-branch --tree-filter '/home/dan/stuff/replace-with-sha.sh /home/dan/stuff/top-500-biggest-blobs.txt $GIT_COMMIT' -- --all
    
  8. (Two hours later...) Did it work? Check that nothing is crazy screwed up.

  9. Git probably has some of the old data hanging around from before the rewrite. Not sure if all three of these lines are needed but certainly the last one:

    rm -rf .git/refs/original/
    git reflog expire --all
    git gc --prune=now
    

After I'd run that last "gc" line, that was the point that I could tell that I'd successfully got the disk-space right down.

If everything's OK at this point, you can copy the repos from the ramdisk back to replace the repos in its official location.

Now, when you next pull or push that repository, please be careful. You might need to rebase your latest work on top of the rewritten history.

Syndicated 2012-12-05 05:25:35 (Updated 2012-12-05 05:39:09) from Dan Stowell

Academia and flying

When I started in academia I had no idea how much travel was involved. I started a PhD because I was fascinated by computational possibilities in digital sound, and almost by chance I ended up at one of the world-leading research groups in that area, which just happened to be nearby in London. Throughout my PhD I was lucky enough to get funded travel to conferences in interesting cities like Copenhagen and Helsinki, which was an unexpected plus - not just for the research benefits you get from meeting other researchers worldwide, but just for being able to visit and see those places.

Now, two things we know are that international travel tends to involve flying, and that flying is bad for the environment. Having finished my PhD and now working as an academic researcher, there are still plenty of research conferences around the world that are good to go to: they're specifically good for my project right now, and also for my professional development more generally. On average, research conferences are in other countries. So, is it possible to be an academic researcher and avoid flying? Does that harm your career? Could academia be "rearranged" to make it involve less flying?

Here's an example: I was invited to give a seminar in a European country. A nice invitation, and the organisers agreed to try and arrange to travel by train rather than plane. From the UK, this is tricky, because as an island the options are a little restricted: we have some nice (but slow) ferry services, and we have the Eurostar. It's hard for me to request non-plane transport because it tends to be more expensive for the organisers, and it can be really hard to schedule (since there are fewer schedule options and they take longer). So in the end, this time round we had to go for a compromise: I'm taking a plane one way and a train the other way. We couldn't do better than that.

In environmental terms, we can do better - I could decline the invitation. But academic research is international: the experts who are "next door" in terms of the subject are almost never "next door" geographically. If you want to develop your research you have to have meaningful personal interactions with these experts. Email, phone, videoconferencing are all fine, but if that's all you do then you lose out on the meaningful, full-bandwidth interaction that actually leads to new ideas, future collaborations, real understandings.

(For some research that confirms and discusses the importance of face-to-face collaboration, try this interesting story about lasers: Collins, H.M. "Tacit Knowledge, Trust and the Q of Sapphire" Social Studies of Science p. 71-85 31(1) 2001)

As a whole, is there much that the academic world can do to mitigate the amount of travel needed? Well, I'd still say it's worth encouraging teleconferencing and the like, though as I've noted I don't think it completely scratches the itch. Should we try to focus on local-ish conferencing rather than one global summit? That doesn't strike me as a very fruitful idea, since it would reduce the amount of international mixing if it worked (and thus the amount of productive international collaboration), and I don't think it would work since one "local" conference would probably tend to emerge as the stronger.

And if you're a researcher, aware of the issues involved in heavy use of air travel, you have a balance to strike. How much can/should you turn down interesting opportunities for presenting, networking, collaboration, based on geographic distance? Will it harm your own opportunities, while others jet off to take advantage of them? Personally I know there are specific opportunities I've turned down in the past year or so, because it didn't feel right to jet off to certain places just for a couple of days' meeting. In other cases, I've taken up opportunities only after making sure I make the most of the visit by adding other meetings or holidays into the visit.

Your thoughts would be welcome...

Syndicated 2012-11-20 11:03:15 (Updated 2012-11-20 11:11:40) from Dan Stowell

Happy UK live music day

Happy UK live music day! On the news this morning they announced that one of the regulations removed in the government's so-called "bonfire of the regulations" is the law that you can't have live music in the UK without a specific licence.

This is great news. The licensing was proper onerous - you used to need a licence that covered the exact rooms you had in mind. I remember a few years ago when a new arts centre opened up right next to my house. I was developing some generative musical ideas at the time, and I thought, aha, they have a CD playing in the bar area, I can propose some generative music for them which would be an interesting arty thing.

Unfortunately, the art centre couldn't do it, because they had a music licence that allowed live music only in the theatre, but not in the bar, or the gallery, or...

This has cropped up in other contexts too. The exact rule, if I remember right, was that you could have unaccompanied unamplified singing, but anything more than that (even accompaniment with a single acoustic guitar, etc) was banned except in these licensed rooms, and many many places in the UK couldn't be bothered to apply for licences if it wasn't part of their main line of business.

So. More interesting little bits of musical happening, I hope.

Syndicated 2012-10-01 03:38:49 from Dan Stowell

Lime tabbouleh

This recipe used HFW's "tabula kisir" recipe as a starting point, but I adapted it to approximate a nice tabbouleh I've had in the good lebanese place. As usual, I make no claims to authenticity - but in my opinion there shouldn't be too much wheat (or else it comes across like a boring old couscous), and it should have a nice acid tang - in my version the lime does that really nicely. I didn't have any tomatoes in the house but you could easily add a single diced tomato too. Serves 2, takes about half an hour in total.

  • 1 small handful bulgar wheat
  • 1 spring onion
  • 1 generous handful parsley
  • 1 lime
  • 1 small handful chopped walnut pieces
  • 1 tsp chilli flakes
  • 1/2 tsp cumin
  • 1/2 tsp paprika
  • 1 tbsp tomato puree
  • 2 tbsp olive oil

Put the bulgar wheat into a large bowl (it will look like not very much!), and add just enough boiling water to cover. Put a plate over the top and leave it to steam for 20 minutes. Meanwhile, there are a few other bits you can prepare in parallel:

Wash the spring onion and the parsley and put them to one side.

Put a dry frying pan on a hot hob, and add the walnuts. Toss them around in the pan occasionally until they smell nice and toasty. Then turn off the heat and put them to one side.

Also make up the dressing. Juice the lime into a small dish or glass. Then add the chilli flakes, cumin, paprika, and tomato puree, and whisk it up with a fork. Then add the olive oil and whisk it up again. Finally mix the dressing in with the bulgar wheat, and if it hasn't already cooled completely then leave it a little while more.

Chop the spring onion finely, and the parsley too. Add them to the bulgar wheat, and add the walnuts too. It's also nice to add a little bit of peel from the lime. Mix it all around, and leave it at least a few minutes for the flavours to mix together.

Syndicated 2012-09-30 07:09:26 from Dan Stowell

17 Sep 2012 (updated 18 Sep 2012 at 07:09 UTC) »

How long it takes to get my articles published

Today I remembered about an article I submitted ages ago to a journal, accepted but not out yet. I also realised that since I store all my work in version-control, I can pull out all the exact dates when I started writing things, submitted them, rewrote them, etc.

So here's a visualisation of that data. In the following, a solid straight line is a period where the paper is "in my hands" (writing, rewriting, or whatever), and a dashed arc is where the paper is with someone else (a reviewer or a typesetter):

Each GREEN blob is a moment of official acceptance; a RED blob the moment of official rejection; a YELLOW blob the moment of a journal article actually being publicly available. (I also included some conference papers - the yellow blob is the date of presentation for those.) This only covers things since I got my PhD.

One thing you can see straight away is that often the initial review and/or the final typesetting periods are massive compared against the writing periods. I hadn't realised, but for my journal articles it's pretty much at least 1 year between submission and availability.

People often complain about the peer-review process and how slow it can be, but the thing that's puzzling me right now is why these massive post-acceptance delays, which are nothing to do with reviewing? For someone like me who normally submits LaTeX documents, I can't even guess what work is left to do... yet it seems to take a minimum of 4 months!

This is just my own data - I make no claims to generality.

Syndicated 2012-09-17 17:13:37 (Updated 2012-09-18 03:07:47) from Dan Stowell

Notes from EUSIPCO 2012

Just back from the EUSIPCO 2012 conference in Bucharest. (The conference was held in the opulent Palace of the Parliament - see previous article for some thoughts on the palace and the town.) Here some notes about interesting talks/posters I saw:

Talks/posters

Lots of stuff relevant to recognition in audio scenes, which is handy because that's related to my current work.

  • David Damm's "System for audio summarisation in acoustic monitoring scenarios". Nice approach and demo (with sounds localised around the Frauenhofer campus), though the self-admitted drawback is that it isn't yet particularly scalebale, using full DTW search etc.
  • Sebastien Fenet's "fingerprint-based detection of repeating objects in multimedia streams" - here a very scaleable approach, using fingerprints (as is done in other large-scale systems such as Shazam). In this paper he compared two fingerprint types: a Shazam-like spectral-peaks method (but using constant-Q spectrum); and a shallow Matching Pursuit applied to multiscale STFT. His results seem to favour the former.
  • Xavier Valero's "Gammatone wavelet features for sound classification in surveillance applications" - this multiscale version of gammatone is apparently better for detecting bangs and bumps (which fits with folk knowledge about wavelets...).
  • M. A. Sehili's "Daily sound recognition using a combination of GMM and SVM for home automation" - they used something called a Sequence Classification Kernel which apparently can be used in an SVM to classify sequential data, even different-length sequential data. Have to check that out.
  • Two separate papers - Anansie Zlatintsi's "AM-FM Modulation Features" and Xavier Valero's "Narrow-band Autocorrelation features" - used features which are complementary to the standard Mel energies, by analysing the fine variation within each band. They each found improved results (for different classification tasks). (In my own thesis I looked at band-wise spectral crest features, hoping to achieve something similar. I found that they did provide complementary information [Sec 3.4] but unfortunately were not robust enough to noise/degradation for my purposes [Sec 3.3]. It'll be interesting to see how these different features hold up - they are more interesting than my spectral crests I think.)

Plenty of informed audio source separation was in evidence too. Not my specialism, more that of others in our group who came along... but I caught a couple of them, including Derry Fitzgerald's "User assisted separation using tensor factorisations" and Juan-Jose Bosch's "Score-informed and timbre-independent lead instrument separation in real-world scenarios".

Other papers that were interesting:

  • T Adali, "Use of diversity in independent decompositions" - for indendence-based decompositions, you can use either of two assumptions about the components: non-Gaussianity or time-dependence. The speaker noted that measuring mutual information rate covers both of these properties, so it seems like a neat thing to use. She used it for some tensor decompositions which were a bit beyond me.
  • C Areliano's poster on "Shape model fitting algorithm without point correspondence": simple idea for matching a hand image against a template which has marked points on it (but the query image doesn't): convert both representations into GMMs then find a good registration between the two GMMs. Could be useful, though the registration search is basically brute-force in this paper I think.
  • Y Panagakis prsented "Music structure analysis by subspace modeling" - it makes a lot of sense, intuitively, that music structure such as verse-chorus-verse should be suited to this idea of fitting different feature subspaces to them. The way music is produced and mixed should make it appropriate for this, I imagine (whereas for audio scenes we probably don't hop from subspace to subspace... unless the mic is moving from indoors to outdoors for example...)
  • Y Bar-Yosef's "Discriminative Algorithm for comacting mixture models with application to language recognition". Taking a GMM and approximating it by a smaller one is a general useful technique - here they were using Hershey and Olsen's 2007 "variational approximation" to the KLD between two GMMs. In this paper, their optimisation tries to preserve the discriminative power between two GMMs, rather than simply keeping the best fit independently.
  • I Ari's "Large scale polyphonic music transcription using randomized matrix decompositions" - some elegant tweaks which mean they can handle a very large matrix of data, using a weighted-random atom selection technique which reminds me a little of a kind of randomised Matching Pursuit (though MP is not what they're doing). They reduce the formal complexity of matrix factorisation, both in time and in space, so that it's much more tractable.
  • H Hu's "Sparsity level in a non-negative matrix factorisation based speech strategy in cochlear implants" - I know they do some good work with cochlear implants at Southampton Uni. This was a nice example: not only did they use Sparse NMF for noise reduction, and test it with human subjects in simulated conditions, but they also implemented it on a hardware device as used in cochlear implants. This latter point is important because at first I was dubious whether this fancy processing was efficient enough to run on a cochlear implant - good to see a paper that answers those kind of questions immediately.

Plenaries/tutorials

Christian Jutten gave a plenary talk on source-separation in nonlinear mixtures. Apparently there's a proof from the 1980s by Darmois that if you have multiple sources nonlinearly mixed, then ICA cannot guarantee to separate them, for the following simple reason: ICA works by maximising independence, but Darmois proved that for any set of perfectly independent sources you can always construct a nonlinear mixture that preserves this independence. (Jutten gave an example procedure to do this; I think you could use the inverse-copula of the joint distribution as another way.)

Therefore to do source-separation on nonlinear mixtures you need to add some assumptions, either as constraints or regularisation. Constraining just to "smooth mappings" doesn't work. One set of mixture types which does work is "post-nonlinear mixtures", which means mixtures in which nonlinearities are applied separately to the outputs after linear mixing. (This is a reasonable model, for example, if your mics have nonlinearities but you can assume the sounds linearly mixed in the air before they reached the mics.) You have to use nonlinearities which satisfy a particular additivity constraint (f(u+v) = (f(u)+f(v))/(1+f(u)f(v)) ... tanh satisfies this). Or at least, you have to use those kind of nonlinearities in order to use Jutten's method.

Eric Moulines talked about prediction in sparse additive models. There's a lot of sparsity around at the moment (and there were plenty of sparsity papers here); Moulines' different approach is that when you want to predict new values, rather than to reverse-engineer the input values, you don't want to select a single sparsity pattern but aggregate over the predictions made by all sparsity patterns. He uses a particular weighted aggregation scheme which he calls "exponential aggregation" involving the risk calculated for each "expert" (each function in the dictionary).

Now, we don't want to calculate the result for an exponentially large number of sparsity patterns and merge them all, since that would take forever. Moulines uses an inequality to convert the combinatorial problem to a continuous problem; unfortunately, at the end of it all it's still too much to calculate easily (2^m estimators) so he uses MCMC estimation to get his actual results.

I also went to the tutorial on Population Monte Carlo methods (which apparently were introduced by Cappe in 2004). I know about Particle Filters so my learnings are relative to that:

  • Each particle or iteration can have its OWN instrumental distribution, there's no need for it to be common across all particles. In fact the teacher (Petar Djuric) had worked on methods where you have a collection of instrumental distributions, and weighted-sample from all of them, adapting the weights as the iterations progress. This allows it to automatically do the kind of things we might heuristically want: start with broad, heavy-tailed distributions, then focus more on narrow distributions in the final refinement stages.
  • For static MC (i.e. not sequential), you can use the samples from ALL iterations to make your final estimate (though you need to take care to normalise appropriately).
  • Rao-Blackwellisation lets you solve a lower-dimensional problem (approximating a lower-dimensional target distribution) if you can analytically integrate to solve for a subset of the parameters given the other ones. For example, if some parameters are gaussian-distributed when conditioned on the others. This can make your approximation much simpler and faster.
  • It's generally held a good idea to use heavy-tailed distributions, e.g. people use Student's t distribution since heavier-tailed than Gaussian.

Syndicated 2012-09-02 06:02:49 (Updated 2012-09-02 06:12:12) from Dan Stowell

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